# Higher-dimensional Interpolation¶

O2scl

## Two-dimensional interpolation¶

There are two types of two-dimensional interpolation classes, the first is based on a function defined on a two-dimensional grid (though the spacings between grid points need not be equal). The class interp2_direct implements bilinear or bicubic interpolation, and is based on D. Zaslavsky’s routines at https://github.com/diazona/interp2d (licensed under GPLv3). A slightly slower (but a bit more flexible) alternative is successive use of interp_base objects, implemented in interp2_seq .

If data is arranged without a grid, then interp2_neigh performs nearest-neighbor interpolation. At present, the only way to compute :ref:contour lines on data which is not defined on a grid is to use this class or one of the multi-dimensional interpolation classes described below the data on a grid and then use contour afterwards.

## Multi-dimensional interpolation¶

Multi-dimensional interpolation for table defined on a grid is possible with tensor_grid. See the documentation for o2scl::tensor_grid::interpolate(), o2scl::tensor_grid::interp_linear() and o2scl::tensor_grid::rearrange_and_copy(). Also, if you want to interpolate rank-1 indices to get a vector result, you can use o2scl::tensor_grid::interp_linear_vec() .

If the data is not on a grid, then inverse distance weighted interpolation is performed by interpm_idw.

An experimental class for multidimensional-dimensional kriging is also provided in interpm_krige .

## Interpolation on a rectangular grid¶

This example creates a sample 3 by 3 grid of data with the function $$\left[ \sin \left( x/10 + 3 y/10 \right) \right]^2$$ and performs some interpolations and compares them with the exact result.


Data:
x  | 0.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 2.000000e+00
y           |
-------------|----------------------------------------
3.000000e+00 | 6.136010e-01 7.080734e-01 7.942506e-01
2.000000e+00 | 3.188211e-01 4.150164e-01 5.145998e-01
1.000000e+00 | 8.733219e-02 1.516466e-01 2.298488e-01

x            y            Calc.        Exact
5.000000e-01 1.500000e+00 6.070521e-01 2.298488e-01
9.900000e-01 1.990000e+00 4.187808e-01 4.110774e-01
1.000000e+00 2.000000e+00 4.150164e-01 4.150164e-01

5.000000e-01 1.500000e+00 6.070521e-01 2.298488e-01
9.900000e-01 1.990000e+00 4.187808e-01 4.110774e-01
1.000000e+00 2.000000e+00 4.150164e-01 4.150164e-01

0 tests performed.
All tests passed.
`

## Contour lines¶

This example generates contour lines of the function

$z = f(x,y) = 15 \exp \left[ - \frac{1}{20^2}\left( x-20 \right)^2 - \frac{1}{5^2}\left(y-5\right)^2\right] + 40 \exp \left[ - \frac{1}{500}\left( x-70 \right)^2 - \frac{1}{2^2}\left(y-2\right)^2\right]$

The figure below shows contour lines in the region $$x\in(0,121), y\in(0,9)$$. The data grid is represented by plus signs, and the associated generated contours. The figure clearly shows the peaks at $$(20,5)$$ and $$(70,2)$$. The contour class can also use interpolation to attempt to refine the data grid. The new contours after a refinement of a factor of 5 is given in the figure below. 